An analysis of the symptoms of schizophrenia a group of psychotic disorders

Full List of News on Schizophrenia Diagnosis Schizophrenia Symptoms and Diagnosis There is currently no physical or lab test that can absolutely diagnose schizophrenia - a psychiatrist usually comes to the diagnosis based on clinical symptoms.

An analysis of the symptoms of schizophrenia a group of psychotic disorders

Substance-induced psychosis Various psychoactive substances both legal and illegal have been implicated in causing, exacerbating, or precipitating psychotic states or disorders in users, with varying levels of evidence. This may be upon intoxication for a more prolonged period after use, or upon withdrawal.

Alcohol related psychosis may manifest itself through a kindling mechanism. The mechanism of alcohol-related psychosis is due to the long-term effects of alcohol resulting in distortions to neuronal membranes, gene expressionas well as thiamin deficiency.

It is possible in some cases that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can cause the development of a chronic substance induced psychotic disorder, i. The effects of an alcohol-related psychosis include an increased risk of depression and suicide as well as causing psychosocial impairments.

Together, these findings suggest that cannabis use may hasten the onset of psychosis in those who may already be predisposed to psychosis. Methamphetamine psychosis Methamphetamine induces a psychosis in 26—46 percent of heavy users. Some of these people develop a long-lasting psychosis that can persist for longer than six months.

Those who have had a short-lived psychosis from methamphetamine can have a relapse of the methamphetamine psychosis years later after a stress event such as severe insomnia or a period of heavy alcohol abuse despite not relapsing back to methamphetamine.

Both first episode psychosis, and high risk status is associated with reductions in grey matter volume.

An analysis of the symptoms of schizophrenia a group of psychotic disorders

First episode psychotic and high risk populations are associated with similar but distinct abnormalities in GMV. Reductions in the right middle temporal gyrusright superior temporal gyrusright parahippocampusright hippocampusright middle frontal gyrusand left anterior cingulate cortex are observed in high risk populations.

Reductions in first episode psychosis span a region from the right STG to the right insula, left insula, and cerebellum, and are more severe in the right ACC, right STG, insula and cerebellum.

In congruence with studies on grey matter volume, hypoactivity in the right insula, and right inferior parietal lobe is also reported.

Decreased grey matter volume and hyperactivity is reported in the ventral ACC i. As auditory hallucinations are most common in psychosis, most robust evidence exists for increased activity in the left middle temporal gyrusleft superior temporal gyrusand left inferior frontal gyrus i.

Activity in the ventral striatumhippocampusand ACC are related to the lucidity of hallucinations, and indicate that activation or involvement of emotional circuitry are key to the impact of abnormal activity in sensory cortices. Together, these findings indicate abnormal processing of internally generated sensory experiences, coupled with abnormal emotional processing, results in hallucinations.

One proposed model involves a failure of feedforward networks from sensory cortices to the inferior frontal cortex, which normal cancel out sensory cortex activity during internally generated speech.

The resulting disruption in expected and perceived speech is thought to produce lucid hallucinatory experiences.

Dysfunction in evaluations systems localized to the right lateral prefrontal cortex, regardless of delusion content, is supported by neuroimaging studies and is congruent with its role in conflict monitoring in healthy persons. Abnormal activation and reduced volume is seen in people with delusions, as well as in disorders associated with delusions such as frontotemporal dementiapsychosis and Lewy body dementia.

Furthermore, lesions to this region are associated with "jumping to conclusions", damage to this region is associated with post-stroke delusions, and hypometabolism this region associated with caudate strokes presenting with delusions.

The aberrant salience model suggests that delusions are a result of people assigning excessive importance to irrelevant stimuli.

In support of this hypothesis, regions normally associated with the salience network demonstrate reduced grey matter in people with delusions, and the neurotransmitter dopaminewhich is widely implicated in salience processing, is also widely implicated in psychotic disorders.

Specific regions have been associated with specific types of delusions. The volume of the hippocampus and parahippocampus is related to paranoid delusions in Alzheimer's diseaseand has been reported to be abnormal post mortem in one person with delusions. Capragas delusions have been associated with occipito-temporal damage, and may be related to failure to elicit normal emotions or memories in response to faces.Oct 17,  · TDs are most common in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who have been treated with antipsychotic medication for long periods, but they occasionally occur in other patients as well.

Focus Points • Cannabis use before 15 years of age increases the risk of serious mental illness, especially psychotic illness later in life. • A family history of psychiatric illness may increase the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis.

Treatment of mental disorders Historical overview Early history. References to mental disorders in early Egyptian, Indian, Greek, and Roman writings show that the physicians and philosophers who contemplated problems of human behaviour regarded mental illnesses as a reflection of the displeasure of the gods or as evidence of demoniac .

A NOTE ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING FOR PERSONALITY DISORDERS. Although psychological testing might be used to aid in a psychiatric diagnosis, most personality tests are best used in forensic applications.

For clinical purposes, a competent psychologist can diagnose any of the personality disorders just through a clinical interview. A new meta-analysis by Cullen and colleagues finds an association between psychosis and non-neurological autoimmune disorders (NNAI). 1 NNAI are those autoimmune disorders that affect mainly the.

Psychiatrists often treat patients with psychotic disorders who are religious or spiritual in some way. Most scientifically trained psychiatrists and other mental health professionals believe in a scientific, secular world-view.

Schizophrenia - Wikipedia