Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt There is evidence of rock carvings along the Nile terraces and in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCa culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain -grinding culture.
Under Confucianism, education was essential for admission to the ruling class of scholar-officials, the mandarinate. Under French rule, even though Vietnamese were excluded from the colonial power elite, education was a requisite for employment in the colonial civil service and for other white-collar, high-status jobs.
In divided Vietnam, education continued to be a channel for social mobility in both the North and the South. Young adults attend English classes and computer courses after they finish work. University students begin working on a second degree before finishing their first one.
Stanley Karnow wrote in Smithsonian magazine: They also see education as both the path to success and consistent with their sense of filial piety, the way to bring esteem to their family.
My parents "are really proud of me. So I have to keep improving, even if there is no room for improvement.
I also feel their pressure. Just study, they say. I can't wash the dishes, mow the lawn or take a summer job. Their entire goal is to see me succeed. Vietnamese-Americans are among the best-performing immigrant groups in American schools. In a school in Santa Ana, California even though Vietnamese make only 15 percent of the student body, 26 of the top 33 students in were Vietnamese.
Traditionally, education has been of great importance to the Vietnamese, and the State has always set aside a significant portion of its budget for education. Teachers enjoy great respect and prestige in Vietnamese society.
In Vietnam the student-teacher relationship retains much of the quality of a son's respect for his father's wisdom and of father's concern for his son's welfare.
The respect that students show to the teachers is also evident in linguistic behavior. The terms of address that students use in speaking to their teachers are the same as those they use in speaking to their parents.
However, educational attainment was less impressive. Although five years of primary school education was considered compulsory and 92 percent of eligible children were enrolled in primary school inonly two-thirds completed the fifth grade. The cost of tuition, books, and uniforms and the need to supplement family income are the two main reasons for dropping out.
A huge disparity exists in primary school enrollment between the cities and rural parts of Vietnam.This document has been revised in October-November In the first part of the document I have attempted to summarise some of the main developments in education policy between and but, very unfortunately, even my summary will have to be .
comprehensive and partially annotated list of books about Herbert Marcuse, compiled by Harold Marcuse. Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes from the meeting on by Ron Johnston.
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