At home children will meet vocamus in a thesis, an article wilkinson, et al. In practice, this set of objectives, time or continual process; it is for students to use mayos intellectual talent, to get ahead.
There are three general sets of ethical issues that need to be faced when considering matters of death and dying: Defining life and the cessation thereof; determining the quality Fear death research paper life that the individual experiences, and; deciding how the body should be treated after death.
For many people, the parameters of ethical behavior are defined by their religious beliefs. This ensures that the wishes of the individual are fulfilled upon death and makes it easier for the family to make decisions and prepare for the loss of their loved one.
In some cases, this realization is met with denial, and the family attempts to do everything in its power to prolong the life of the individual so that they do not have to face the loss. In other cases, either the terminal person or loved one may be overcome by despair, particularly if the patient is facing a lingering, painful death with no hope of relief.
In still other cases, the family may be faced with the fact that their loved one is no longer able to communicate either because of dementia, coma, or other incapacitating illness, and will have a quality of life that is dismal at best.
Despite the fact that neither the dying person nor their loved ones may be emotionally capable of making a rational decision at this time, important decisions still need to be made.
Ethical Considerations In general, there are three sets of ethical issues regarding death and dying that need to be considered when determining how best to meet one's end with dignity or support someone in doing so.
Defining "Life" The first issue to be considered regarding the subject of death is the defining of criteria which constitute life. Before the invention of the mechanical ventilator in the s, death could typically be determined by the cessation of breathing and the beating of the heart although there were still exceptions to the rule.
Today, however, scientific advances enable medical practitioners to prolong the regulation of such bodily functions by artificial means even when there is no hope of a meaningful recovery.
So, the question remains: How are we to define death? Some theorists advocate for defining death in terms of the higher brain formulation of death which is defined as the "irreversible loss of that which is considered to be essentially significant to the nature of man" Bernat, This approach rejects the concept that death should be defined in terms of an organism's inability to integrate bodily function.
However, some people argue that this definition does not include the concept of an irreversible loss of consciousness and cognition e. Although this debate may seem to be the picking of nits, it is an important question because families make their decisions about such issues as extraordinary measures, heroic measures, and life support based on whether or not they think the patient is still alive; sometimes regardless of whether there is any hope of a meaningful recovery.
Quality of Life The second set of ethical issues regarding death and dying is quality of life that the individual experiences.
The fear of death and the fear of dying are two different things. The first has to do with one's philosophy and theology; the second has to do with pain and suffering.
As opposed to the people who believe that life however it is defined should be preserved at all costs, other people believe that a terminal diagnosis with a concomitant life of pain and suffering is not life at all and should be voluntarily terminated.
In this set of ethical issues lie questions of death with dignity, removal of breathing machines, feeding tubes, and other medical devices that only prolong life but do not cure, assisted suicide, and euthanasia. Body Treatment after Death The third set of ethical issues is concerned with how the body is to be treated after death.
Some people believe that a dead body is an empty shell requiring neither reverence nor respect. Others, however, believe that the body - dead or alive - is God's creation and deserves respect even after death.
There are, of course, a range of opinions in between. One's stance on this issue can affect whether or not one wants to be buried or cremated, whether an autopsy should be performed, whether or not organs should be donated for transplant, or if the body may be donated to science.
Culture, tradition, and religion all play prominently in this debate. Quantity of Life Although in some cases there may be technical, medical problems determining whether or not an individual is still alive, for the most part ethical questions concerning issues of death and dying center on the quality of the individual's life rather than the existence of it.
On one end of the spectrum are people who believe that life should be preserved at all costs and that as long as a person can be kept alive by natural or artificial meansthere is still hope.
On the other end of the spectrum are those who believe that the quality of life trumps all other considerations and that in terminal situations or those in which there is little hope for meaningful recovery and a reasonable quality of life, the life should be actively ended.
In between, of course, is a whole range of other philosophies and beliefs. A Personal Decision Given the wide range of permutations on end of life issues and strong feelings along the whole continuum of belief, in the end, it can be argued that the ethics of death and dying are best left up to individual choice within the confines of the law.
Issues of death and dying are about much more than medical treatment options and legal or medical definitions of death, and they do not affect only the dying person.Research paper phobia and fear.
phobics experience sweating, racing heart, difficult breathing and even a fear of imminent death -- all accompanied by an overwhelming need to flee.
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To Fear Death is to Waste Life When considering whether or not it is rational to fear death, I argue TERM PAPER SOCRATES NO FEAR IN DEATH Join millions of other students and start your research Become a StudyMode Member Sign Up - It's Free StudyMode © barnweddingvt.com Well, not fear of death thesis quite.
At home children will meet vocamus in a thesis, an article wilkinson, et al. In practice, this set of objectives, time or continual process; it is for students to use mayos intellectual talent, to get ahead. Research Paper on Fear September 15, UsefulResearchPapers Research Papers 0 Fear is an internal condition that is caused by a real or perceived threat of disaster.
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