His efforts in this direction included the self-financed publication of a pamphlet entitled "Nature" in This essay, only five hundred copies of which were printed and these took some six years to be distributedreceived little initial notice but effectively articulated the philosophical underpinnings of the subsequently widely influential New England Transcendentalism movement. There were twelve essays in this volume the very first being one entitled "History".
After breakfast, your exploration begins with a visit to the Larco Herrera Museum, boasting one of the greatest private collections of pre-Columbian artifacts. Its permanent exhibition includes a variety of colorful textiles, ceramics and jewelry, but perhaps its most interesting collection consists of ancient erotic artifacts.
You will also visit the fashionable districts of San Isidro and Miraflores with their beautiful parks and elegant residences overlooking the Pacific Ocean. After breakfast, transfer to the airport to board a short flight to Cusco, capital of the Inca Empire 11, feet above sea level.
Upon arrival, travel to nearby Pisac, a picturesque Andean village with a wonderful market. Enjoy browsing the "locals" section of the market, where villagers come from miles around, dressed in their traditional clothing, to barter and sell their produce.
Continue to Ollantaytambo 9, feet above sea levellocated at the foot of spectacular Inca ruins which protected the strategic entrance to the lower Urubamba Valley, also known as the Sacred Valley.
The temple area is at the top of a series of steep terraces which helped provide excellent defense. Stone used for these buildings was brought from a quarry high up on the opposite side of the Urubamba River, an incredible feat involving the efforts of thousands of workers.
Afterwards, check in to your hotel for dinner and overnight. Believed to have served as a country retreat town for Inca nobility, the complex consists of giant walls, terraces, and ramps constructed from precisely cut rock formations.
This impressive architectural feat, in combination with its breathtaking natural setting amid mist-covered green mountains above the rushing Urubamba River, makes for a visually stunning, and even mystical, experience.
Enjoy the remainder of the day and evening in Aguas Calientes, at the foot of Machu Picchu. Enjoy the morning at leisure to explore the quaint town of Aguas Calientes, revisit the citadel at Machu Picchu or trek to the top of Huayna Picchu on an optional excursion.
This afternoon, journey back to Ollanta station by Vistadome train, then continue to Cusco by motor coach. Upon arrival, check into your hotel for overnight. Early this morning, there will be an opportunity to independently visit Machu Picchu for a second time, and for the more adventurous, to test their limits with a climb to Huayna Picchu, the sharp peak which towers above the citadel.
Entrance to Machu Picchu: Price includes reserved ticket and roundtrip bus from Aguas Calientes to Machu Picchu. Please contact us to reserve this option in advance as availability is limited. Day at leisure or join one or both! Enjoy the day at leisure in this beautiful town in the high Andes Mountains.
You may stroll through the main square, or wander through the many charming side streets.
Alternatively, take advantage of one, or both, optional excursions! Next, depending on your departure date, you will visit Maras or Moray.
During the dry season May through late-November visit the salt works of Maras, consisting of about small pools, constructed on a mountain side.
The ancient Inca would irrigate these pools with brackish spring water and allow them to evaporate to produce salt for the empire. During the rainy season late-November though Aprilvisit the archaeological site of Moray consisting of enormous terraces in concentric rings which allowed ancient farmers to create diverse micro climates and harvest a variety of crops.
Tipon is an ancient marvel of engineering consisting of twelve agricultural terraces and an advanced irrigation system that is still used by the local population to this day. After a leisurely breakfast, enjoy a panoramic city tour of Cusco.
Then, just a few blocks away, you will discover the ruins of the Koricancha, an important temple built to honor Inti, the Incan sun god. When the conquistadors first arrived in Cusco, the temple was covered in sheets of solid-gold and adorned with golden statues, but within months of their arrival, the temple was stripped and the gold plundered as treasure for Spain.
Then, visit the Sacsayhuaman fortress, an emblematic Incan construction built in the 15th century. The size of the fortress and its massive stones are remarkable, and the manner in which they were transported, cut, and laid is still a mystery.
Next, travel to Puka Pukara, also known as the "red fortress", which is thought to have been a military stronghold. Return to Cusco for lunch at a local restaurant.
The balance of the afternoon is yours to explore Cusco and shop for last minute souvenirs. Why not make your way to the San Blas neighborhood, known as the "Balcony of Cusco"?The Pyramids vs. The Parthenon Ancient civilizations were capable of producing awe inspiring architectural feats.
This holds true with the Egyptians and Romans. The Egyptian Pyramids and the Greek Parthenon are architectural marvels today even though they were built over a thousand years ago.
These impressive structures were built over many. While pyramids are associated with Egypt, the nation of Sudan has extant pyramids, the most numerous in the world. The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It is the only one to survive into modern times. The languages still spoken in Mexico today show that despite shared traditions and influences, many distinct civilizations arose because of geography, climate and contact with other cultures.
Like the Parthenon, how it was built is still unknown, since each block of limestone weighed tons. The pyramid of Khufu was built in around BCE, the pyramid of Khafre in BCE, and the pyramid of Menkaure BCE. And the Parthenon is situated well to announce this theme, high above Athens on the Acropolis (the rocky upcropping in the middle of the city) where, like the Pyramids of Giza, it is visible for miles around.
Last time in Episode 11, The Parthenon Frieze, Part 2, we continued to inch toward our understanding of the Persian influence on the Parthenon Frieze. We discovered that Ionian Greek artisans played a significant role in the construction of the Persian imperial cities of Persepolis and Susa.