The Mongols ruled with a strong sense of justice, summed up in their Yasa code and emphasized ability over lineage. The Mongol Empire brought peace, stability, and unity to large tracts of the known world and practiced religious tolerance to a remarkable degree at a time when conformity to religious doctrine was rigidly enforced in much of Europe. One of the more successful tactics employed by the Mongols was to wipe out urban populations that had refused to surrender; in the invasion of Kievan Rus'almost all major cities were destroyed; but if they chose to submit, the people were spared and treated leniently.
The subject covers more than twelve centuries, about a dozen empires and a vast territory, stretching from Spain in the west to the islands of Indonesia in the Pacific Ocean. It is impossible to provide a comprehensive treatment of the history of Islam in a brief space. However, I have attempted to present here, and in related pages that are linked or planned, a concise relatively treatment of the essential facts that everyone should know about Islam, the Arabs and the Middle East.
Islam arose in the Arabian peninsula, and its history and rites are connected with it. This history is meant to be read in conjunction with the complementary article about the history of Arabia. A Ghazwa is a large scale raid that was led by Muhammad in person.
Unable to cross the trench, the Meccans besieged Medina. Terrified by the portents, they broke camp and lifted the siege. Muhammad had created powerful force that could now wrest control of much of the subcontinent.
InMuhammad died after a short illness. Though he had been an astute statesman, he failed to make any arrangements for his succession. His successors were chosen one after the other from among the family and supporters of Muhammad.
Abu Bakr, father-law of Muhammad, was his first successor. He was given command of the faithful as Khalifa Caliphdeputy of Muhammad. Several tribes living at some distance from Mecca refused to accept his rule, and a war of secession, the Ridda, was fought by Abu Bakr and his able general Khalid ibn al Walid to subjugate these tribes.
Muslim successes in these wars and real or perceived threats from the neighboring Persian and Byzantine empires initiated a series of wars of conquest outside the Arabian peninsula. Abu Bakr died inand was replaced by Umarwho completed the initial expansion of Islam.
The Byzantine and Persian empires had been greatly weakened by their struggles with each other and internal decay. The Arabs had perfected a form of warfare suitable for the desert, and for those times and conditions.
The swordsmen mounted on camels, and living by raids and foraging were self-sufficient and didn't concern themselves with supply lines. They could come out of the desert that bordered Persian and Byzantine domains and strike at will. If they failed in battle, they could quickly retreat into the desert, where it was difficult for enemies mounted on horseback to follow.
The failing Byzantine and Persian empires could not organize field armies large enough to decisively defeat the Arabs, nor could they provide the manpower for proper stationary defensive fortifications. The Caliph Umar conquered Jerusalem inand guaranteed the safety of the Christian holy places. Uthman was murdered by mutinous soldiers inprovoking a civil war over the succession, and laying the foundation for an eventual split.
In place of Uthman. Ali, the son-in-law of Muhammad, who had married his daughter Fatima, became Caliph. Ali moved the capital from Media to Kufa, in what is now Iraq.
The Arabian peninsula, which had spawned Islam, remained an important religious center and the site of the holy pilgrimage to Mecca, but it was politically eclipsed and did not play an important part in the subsequent expansion of Islam. He defeated the widow of Muhammad and her supporters at Basra, in modern Iraq, in the battle of the Camel.
Mu'awiya, who ruled the province of Syria from Damascus, claimed that he was the legitimate successor to the Caliphate, and challenged Ali indecisively in the battle of Sittin in The Kharjites meaning "those who left" protested against the compromise outcome of the battle and formed a separate movement as adherents of Ali.
They continued to be important until about the eleventh century and eventually evolved into Ibadi Islam. In the course of history, Islam diverged into numerous schools and sects with different approaches and philosophies ranging from fierce and puritanical schools such as the Wahhabi of Saudi Arabia to tolerant and spiritualistic Sufi practitioners.
Four different Sufi schools Tasawwuf arose in different parts of the Islamic world:Islam - The Spread of Islam. My Account. The Spread of Islam Essay.
The Spread of Islam Essay Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper. Need Writing Help? As Western Roman Empire crumbled the Christian Church survived becoming one of the most important organizations in Europe. The Church. Islam in Europe, Mosque Architecture, Islam in Germany Social transformation through self-reformation: sacralising the secular ‘in the Path of Allah’ Though frequently cited as the world’s largest transnational Islamic revivalist movement of modern times, the Tablighi Jama’at (TJ) has paradoxically received only limited academic attention.
'Islam in the News' contains worldwide news concerning Islam and its followers. Further news covering the persecution of minorities, free speech, and some other issues can be found via the hub page.
- The Middle East – a region of One Thousand and One Nights, but also a place of the religion of Islam, which has spread into many European countries over the past few decades. The United Kingdom is one of the countries, where the religion of Islam plays a major role.
Islam vs Buddhism When it comes to some of the major religions in the world, a lot of people are skeptical, or even fearful of something that they do not know a lot about.
Here, we will try to do away with some of the most common misconceptions regarding the two most common religions in the world: Islam .
Spread of Islam, The WTH THE DEATH of Muhammad, the Muslim community found itself without a leader. While as the ‘seal of the prophets’ he could have no successor, as a political guide Muhammad was succeeded by the so-called al Khulafa' al Rashidun, the four ‘rightly-guided caliphs’ who were chosen from his most loyal companions.