History of television The earliest systems were mechanical television systems, which used spinning disks with patterns of holes punched into the disc to scan an image. A similar disk reconstructed the image at the receiver. Synchronization of the receiver disc rotation was handled through sync pulses broadcast with the image information.
Mechanical television The Nipkow disk. This schematic shows the circular paths traced by the holes that may also be square for greater precision. The area of the disk outlined in black shows the region scanned.
Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between and Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in As a year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in Fournier in Paris in A matrix of 64 selenium cells, individually wired to a mechanical commutatorserved as an electronic retina.
In the receiver, a type of Kerr cell modulated the light and a series of variously angled mirrors attached to the edge of a rotating disc scanned the modulated beam onto the display screen.
A separate circuit regulated synchronization.
The 8x8 pixel resolution in this proof-of-concept demonstration was just sufficient to clearly transmit individual letters of the alphabet.
An updated image was transmitted "several times" each second. Moving images were not possible because, in the scanner: By the s, when amplification made television practical, Scottish inventor John Logie Baird employed the Nipkow disk in his prototype video systems. By 26 Januaryhe demonstrated the transmission of the image of a face in motion by radio.
This is widely regarded as the first television demonstration. A bright light shining through a spinning Nipkow disk set with lenses projected a bright spot of light which swept across the subject.
A Selenium photoelectric tube detected the light reflected from the subject and converted it into a proportional electrical signal. This was transmitted by AM radio waves to a receiver unit, where the video signal was applied to a neon light behind a second Nipkow disk rotating synchronized with the first.
The brightness of the neon lamp was varied in proportion to the brightness of each spot on the image. As each hole in the disk passed by, one scan line of the image was reproduced.
Inhe became involved in the first experimental mechanical television service in Germany. Inhe made the first outdoor remote broadcast, of The Derby. An American inventor, Charles Francis Jenkinsalso pioneered the television.
He published an article on "Motion Pictures by Wireless" inbut it was not until December that he transmitted moving silhouette images for witnesses; and it was on 13 Junethat he publicly demonstrated synchronized transmission of silhouette pictures.
In Jenkins used the Nipkow disk and transmitted the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion, over a distance of five miles, from a naval radio station in Maryland to his laboratory in Washington, D. Ives and Frank Gray of Bell Telephone Laboratories gave a dramatic demonstration of mechanical television on 7 April Their reflected-light television system included both small and large viewing screens.
The small receiver had a 2-inch-wide by 2. Both sets were capable of reproducing reasonably accurate, monochromatic, moving images. Along with the pictures, the sets received synchronized sound. The system transmitted images over two paths: Comparing the two transmission methods, viewers noted no difference in quality.
Subjects of the telecast included Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover. A flying-spot scanner beam illuminated these subjects. The scanner that produced the beam had a aperture disk.
The disc revolved at a rate of 18 frames per second, capturing one frame about every 56 milliseconds. Television historian Albert Abramson underscored the significance of the Bell Labs demonstration: It would be several years before any other system could even begin to compare with it in picture quality.3.
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