To see how architecture fits into the evolution of fine arts, see:: Relationship Between Architecture and Art Ever since Antiquity, architecture - the art of designing and constructing buildings - has always been closely intertwined with the history of artfor at least three reasons.
Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain Dome: Interior of the Pantheon in Rome Main article: Byzantine architecture The Byzantine Empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from the Roman Empire after ADwhen the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to Byzantium later renamed Constantinople and now called Istanbul.
The empire endured for more than a millennium, dramatically influencing Medieval and Renaissance-era architecture in Europe and, following the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks inleading directly to the architecture of the Ottoman Empire.
Early Byzantine architecture was built as a continuation of Roman architecture. Stylistic drifttechnological advancementand political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually emerged which imbued certain influences from the Near East and used the Greek cross plan in church architecture.
Buildings increased in geometric complexitybrick and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more freely, mosaics replaced carved decoration, complex domes rested upon massive piersand windows filtered light through thin sheets of alabaster to softly illuminate interiors.
Persian architecture The ruins of Persepolisapproximately years old. The pre-Islamic styles draw on thousand years of architectural development from various civilizations of the Iranian plateau. The Islamic architecture of Iran in turn, draws ideas from its pre-Islamic predecessor, and has geometrical and repetitive forms, as well as surfaces that are richly decorated with glazed tiles, carved stucco, patterned brickwork, floral motifs, and calligraphy.
The Achaemenids built on a grand scale. The artists and materials they used were brought in from practically all territories of what was then the largest state in the world.
Pasargadae set the standard: Pasargadae along with Susa and Persepolis expressed the authority of The King of Kings, the staircases of the latter recording in relief sculpture the vast extent of the imperial frontier. With the emergence of the Parthians and Sassanids there was an appearance of new forms.
Parthian innovations fully flowered during the Sassanid period with massive barrel-vaulted chambers, solid masonry domes, and tall columns. This influence was to remain for years to come. The roundness of the city of Baghdad in the Abbasid era for example, points to its Persian precedents such as Firouzabad in Fars.
The fall of the Sassanid Empire to invading Islamic forces ironically led to the creation of remarkable religious buildings in Iran. Arts such as calligraphystucco work, mirror work, and mosaic work, became closely tied with architecture in Iran in the new era.
Archaeological excavations have provided sufficient documents in support of the impacts of Sasanian architecture on the architecture of the Islamic world.
Many experts believe the period of Persian architecture from the 15th through 17th Centuries to be the most brilliant of the post-Islamic era.
Various structures such as mosques, mausoleums, bazaars, bridges, and different palaces have mainly survived from this period.
In the old Persian architecture, semi-circular and oval-shaped vaults were of great interest, leading Safavi architects to display their extraordinary skills in making massive domes.Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or .
dominant Western powers that the world economy influenced architecture more generally than the global origins of the star product.
The new architecture has been approvingly dubbed “supermodern” by the concomitant spread of products, culture and style. Post modern the evolution of architecture the influence of western culture on global architecture architecture and Modern architecture Tectonic Thinking in Architecture The an analysis of the acts in william shakespeares play othello term tectonic is known from the science comprehensive analysis of diary of a madman by nikolai gogol of geology.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, religious beliefs, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies. In conclusion then, we may say that ancient Greek architecture has provided not only many of the staple features of modern western architecture, but it has also given the world truly magnificent buildings which have literally stood the test of time and continue to inspire admiration and awe.
A key figure in the development of American architecture during the early 19th century, was the third US President Thomas Jefferson (), whose strong preference for neoclassicism, in the design of public buildings, had a strong influence on his contemporaries.