References and Further Reading 1.
Guidelines for Multicultural Collaboration We all have an internal list of those we still don't understand, let alone appreciate. We all have biases, even prejudices, toward specific groups. In our workshops we ask people to gather in pairs and think about their hopes and fears in relating to people of a group different from their own.
Fears usually include being judged, miscommunication, and patronizing or hurting others unintentionally; hopes are usually the possibility of dialogue, learning something new, developing friendships, and understanding different points of view. After doing this activity hundreds of times, I'm always amazed how similar the lists are.
At any moment that we're dealing with people different from ourselves, the likelihood is that they carry a similar list of hopes and fears in their back pocket. No matter how well we think we understand each other, communication is hard. Just think, for example, how often we hear things like, "He doesn't get it," or "She didn't really hear what I meant to say.
Our culture influences how we approach problems, and how we participate in groups and in communities. When we participate in groups we are often surprised at how differently people approach their work together.
Culture is a complex concept, with many different definitions. But, simply put, "culture" refers to a group or community with which we share common experiences that shape the way we understand the world. It includes groups that we are born into, such as gender, race, or national origin.
It also includes groups we join or become part of. For example, we can acquire a new culture by moving to a new region, by a change in our economic status, or by becoming disabled.
When we think of culture this broadly, we realize we all belong to many cultures at once. Our histories are a critical piece of our cultures. Historical experiences -- whether of five years ago or of ten generations back -- shape who we are.
Knowledge of our history can help us understand ourselves and one another better. Exploring the ways in which various groups within our society have related to each other is key to opening channels for cross-cultural communication.
Six Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Differences In a world as complex as ours, each of us is shaped by many factors, and culture is one of the powerful forces that acts on us. Anthropologists Kevin Avruch and Peter Black explain the importance of culture this way: One's own culture provides the "lens" through which we view the world; the "logic" As people from different cultural groups take on the exciting challenge of working together, cultural values sometimes conflict.
We can misunderstand each other, and react in ways that can hinder what are otherwise promising partnerships. Oftentimes, we aren't aware that culture is acting upon us. Sometimes, we are not even aware that we have cultural values or assumptions that are different from others'.
Six fundamental patterns of cultural differences -- ways in which cultures, as a whole, tend to vary from one another -- are described below.Carol Gilligan continues to support equality and female resistance as a professor at New York University and Cambridge University.
Her work is widely esteemed for inspiring the Gender Equity in Education Act. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development is a book on gender studies by American professor Carol Gilligan, published in , which Harvard University Press calls "the little book that started a revolution"..
In the book, Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's stages of moral development of children. Kohlberg's data showed that girls on average reached a lower level of moral. Ethics of care and feminist ethics Edit. Care-focused feminism is a branch of feminist thought, informed primarily by ethics of care as developed by Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings.
Harvard University Press. ↑ Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p.
Technology In Action, Introductory - United States Edition, Alan Evans, Mary Anne Poatsy, Kendall Martin A Survey of Worcestershire by Thomas Habington V2 (), Thomas Habington, John Amphlett Four Freedoms Trimmers, School Specialty Publishing, Carson Dellosa Publishing.
Carol Gilligan (/ ˈ ɡ ɪ l ɪ ɡ ən /; born November 28, ) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics.
Together with her students, Gilligan founded the Harvard Project on Women’s Psychology and Girls’ Development, and in , she was appointed to Harvard’s first professorship in gender studies.
Gilligan is currently a professor at New York University.