Niyom Tantikun, and Dr.
Cultural services[ edit ] cultural including use of nature as motif in books, film, painting, folklore, national symbols, architect, advertising, etc. The implement and effects of rio good review of approaches in landscape aesthetics, cultural heritage, outdoor recreation, and spiritual significance to define and assess cultural values of our environment so that they fit into the ecosystem services approach is given by Daniel et al.
There also is a fundamental critique of the concept of cultural ecosystem services that builds on three arguments: In New York Citywhere the quality of drinking water had fallen below standards required by the U. Environmental Protection Agency EPAauthorities opted to restore the polluted Catskill Watershed that had previously provided the city with the ecosystem service of water purification.
Once the input of sewage and pesticides to the watershed area was reduced, natural abiotic processes such as soil absorption and filtration of chemicals, together with biotic recycling via root systems and soil microorganismswater quality improved to levels that met government standards.
One study  reports that in California's agricultural region, it was found that wild bees alone could provide partial or complete pollination services or enhance the services provided by honey bees through behavioral interactions.
However, intensified agricultural practices can quickly erode pollination services through the loss of species. The remaining species are unable to compensate this.
The presence of such ecosystem elements functions almost like an insurance policy for farmers. In watersheds of the Yangtze River Chinaspatial models for water flow through different forest habitats were created to determine potential contributions for hydroelectric power in the region.
By quantifying the relative value of ecological parameters vegetation-soil-slope complexesresearchers were able to estimate the annual economic benefit of maintaining forests in the watershed for power services to be 2. Nitrates and pesticides were entering the company's springs in northeastern France.
Local farmers had intensified agricultural practices and cleared native vegetation that previously had filtered water before it seeped into the aquifer used by Vittel.
This contamination threatened the company's right to use the "natural mineral water" label under French law. For example, Vittel provided subsidies and free technical assistance to farmers in exchange for farmers' agreement to enhance pasture management, reforest catchments, and reduce the use of agrochemicals.
This is an example of a payment for ecosystem services program. Since the scales at which these entities interact can vary from microbes to landscapesmilliseconds to millions of years, one of the greatest remaining challenges is the descriptive characterization of energy and material flow between them.
For example, the area of a forest floor, the detritus upon it, the microorganisms in the soil and characteristics of the soil itself will all contribute to the abilities of that forest for providing ecosystem services like carbon sequestration, water purification, and erosion prevention to other areas within the watershed.
Note that it is often possible for multiple services to be bundled together and when benefits of targeted objectives are secured, there may also be ancillary benefits—the same forest may provide habitat for other organisms as well as human recreation, which are also ecosystem services.
The complexity of Earth's ecosystems poses a challenge for scientists as they try to understand how relationships are interwoven among organisms, processes and their surroundings.
As it relates to human ecology, a suggested research agenda  for the study of ecosystem services includes the following steps: Recently, a technique has been developed to improve and standardize the evaluation of ESP functionality by quantifying the relative importance of different species in terms of their efficiency and abundance.
However, a critical drawback is that the technique does not account for the effects of interactions, which are often both complex and fundamental in maintaining an ecosystem and can involve species that are not readily detected as a priority. Even so, estimating the functional structure of an ecosystem and combining it with information about individual species traits can help us understand the resilience of an ecosystem amidst environmental change.
Many ecologists also believe that the provision of ecosystem services can be stabilized with biodiversity.
Increasing biodiversity also benefits the variety of ecosystem services available to society. Understanding the relationship between biodiversity and an ecosystem's stability is essential to the management of natural resources and their services. Redundancy hypothesis[ edit ] The concept of ecological redundancy is sometimes referred to as functional compensation and assumes that more than one species performs a given role within an ecosystem.
The redundancy hypothesis can be summarized as "species redundancy enhances ecosystem resilience". The hypothesis assumes that species are relatively specialized in their roles and that their ability to compensate for one another is less than in the redundancy hypothesis. As a result, the loss of any species is critical to the performance of the ecosystem.
The key difference is the rate at which the loss of species affects total ecosystem functioning. Portfolio effect[ edit ] A third explanation, known as the portfolio effect, compares biodiversity to stock holdings, where diversification minimizes the volatility of the investment, or in this case, the risk of instability of ecosystem services.
When considered together, they create a stabilizing function that preserves the integrity of a service. In ECOTRON, a laboratory in the UK where many of the biotic and abiotic factors of nature can be simulated, studies have focused on the effects of earthworms and symbiotic bacteria on plant roots.
However, a study on grasslands at Cedar Creek Reserve in Minnesota supports the redundancy hypothesis, as have many other field studies.
Environmental economicsEcological economicsPayment for ecosystem servicesEnvironmental ethicsDeep ecologyand The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity Sustainable urban drainage pond near housing in Scotland. The filtering and cleaning of surface and waste water by natural vegetation is a form of ecosystem service.
There are questions regarding the environmental and economic values of ecosystem services. Although environmental awareness is rapidly improving in our contemporary world, ecosystem capital and its flow are still poorly understood, threats continue to impose, and we suffer from the so-called ' tragedy of the commons '.
The economic valuation of ecosystem services also involves social communication and information, areas that remain particularly challenging and are the focus of many researchers.
The six major methods for valuing ecosystem services in monetary terms are: Services allow society to avoid costs that would have been incurred in the absence of those services e.Implementation of a Computer Program to Determine Influence Lines in 3d Frames with Variable Section Beams Caused by Moving Loads of Every Nature and Orientation.
United Nations Conference on Environment & Development Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June AGENDA 21 CONTENTS Chapter Paragraphs 1.
Preamble - Current Issues Rio Tinto in talks to sell Rössing uranium mine to CNNC Rio Tinto is holding talks to sell its majority stake in Rössing to the China National Nuclear Corporation.
This was confirmed by mines and energy permanent secretary Simeon Negumbo yesterday, who told The Namibian that although the ministry was aware of the "ongoing discussions", he was not in a position to provide more.
This paper provides a holistic literature review of climate change and variability in Ghana by examining the impact and projections of climate change and variability in various sectors (agricultural, health and energy) and its implication on ecology, land use, poverty and welfare.
The findings suggest that there is a projected high temperature and low rainfall in the years , and Rio's authorities have also dropped the ball on a promise to plant 24 million seedlings to compensate for the carbon emissions caused by the Games.
With just days to go, they have planted million. Rio's mayor, Eduardo Paes, has denied that the Olympics have failed to deliver an environmental legacy.
Trafficking in persons victimizes millions of men, women, and children worldwide. Although precise numbers are unknown, recent estimates of the number of people enslaved in sex or labor exploitation range from 12 to 27 million.